What are Parts of Speech? What are their Individual Functions?

There are eight parts of speech in the English and these are Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Interjection, Conjunction and Preposition and most importantly, each of them has a distinct function. Knowing parts of speech is essential as it makes us familiar with the function of each word as well as their grammatical significance in the sentences. However, a same word can be used as different parts of speech based on the situation.

Noun: A noun always refers to the name of the place, person, thing, etc. However, proper noun starts with the capital letter and others are not, and a noun can be singular or plural.

However, there are seven types of noun –
Proper (Game of Thrones), Concrete (Sand), Common (Car), Abstract (Bravery), Collective (Class- group of students), Mass (Rice), Count (Ball).
Example:  It is Riya’s birthday. (Here, ‘birthday’ is a noun)

Pronoun: Pronoun is the replacement of a noun.
Example: Jaya is very stylish and she maintains herself properly.
(Here, she is a pronoun and it is used in the place of a noun.)

Adjective: It usually delineates the noun or the pronoun. However, this part of speech provides the details of the subject (noun/ pronoun). It exhibits the size, quality or number of the noun or pronoun in a sentence.
Example: I have two black jeans.
The interior of the room is exclusive.

Verb: This is the imperative part of speech as without a verb the sentence is incomplete. It refers to the state of being or action of the subject in a sentence.

Example: The students prepare for their exams.
They are always ready for the emergencies.

Adverb: This part of speech describes verbs, adjectives as well as another adverb.
Adverb of Manner, Adverb of Place, Adverb of Time and Adverb of Degree are four types of adverbs in English.

Example: Rai dances gracefully.
Roma is a very talented girl.

Interjection: It always refers to such words that are related to expression. However, this part of speech is followed by the exclamation point.

Example: Hurray! We have won the football match.

Conjunction: It joins the words, phrases and even the clauses in a sentence.

Example: This special tea is hot and refreshing.
Lata always wants to be an actor, and she is trying for it for a long time.

Preposition: It refers to a location or a location in time.

Example: The cat is hiding under the table.
Snigdha is practicing old test papers throughout the year.

How to Learn Tenses in English in Easy Way?

Tense refers to the readers that when the action or work is done in the sentences. There are three basic types of tense- Past, Present and Future. Past tense is used when the action is done, whereas the present tense signifies the action, which is in the process and the future tense indicates the action or work that is going to be happened.

  • Past Tense – I prepared chicken curry yesterday.
  • Present Tense – I am preparing chicken curry for lunch.
  • Future Tense – I will prepare chicken curry on this Friday.

    Here are some formulas of tenses, along with the examples.

  • Simple Present – (Finish) – I always finish my tasks within the specified time.
    Subject+ Verb1(s/es) + Object.
  • Present Progressive – (Finishing) – I am finishing my tasks.
    Subject + am/is/are +Verb-ing + Object.
  • Present Perfect (Have /Has Finished) – Radha has finished her tasks.
    Subject +have/has +V3 + Object.
  • Present Perfect Progressive (Have/ Has been Doing) – I have been doing my tasks since morning.
    Subject + have/has +been + Verb-ing+ Object.
  • Simple Past – (Finished) – I finished my work.
    Subject + V2+ Object
  • Past Progressive (Was / Were Finishing) – I was finishing my tasks.
    Subject + Was/ Were + Verb-ing+ Object
  • Past Perfect – (Had Finished) I had finished my lunch.
    Subject +Had + V3 + Object
  • Past Perfect Progressive – (Had been doing) – He had been doing Math sample papers for the whole day before the exam.
    Subject +Had been + Verb-ing+…for.. + before..

 

  • Simple Future – (Will Finish) – I will finish my homework today.
    Subject + Shall /Will + V1 + Object
  • Future Progressive – (Will be doing) – I will be doing my tasks until it gets completed.
    Subject + Shall/ Will+ Be+ Verb-ing + Object
  • Future Perfect – (will have finished) – John will have finished his tasks by the time his mother reaches home.
    Subject + Shall/Will + Have + V3 (been) + Object
  • Future Perfect Progressive (will have been driving)-They will have been driving the car for hours by the time they reach home.
    Subject + Shall /Will + Have been + Verb-ing + Object.

Difference between Idioms and Phrases with Examples

Idioms are the expressions and these are quite different from the words. However, idioms can be a word or a group of words, which are prominently used in the sentences to convey the message beyond the literal meaning. In brief, Idioms have the established meanings and each of them does not relate to the individual meaning of the words. In another way, we can say, idiom has the meaning which is not understandable by the individual word. Keep in mind that idioms are also phrases.

Examples:

‘Raining cats and dogs’ – is an idiom and it means heavy rain.
Based on the countries and cultures, different colloquial idioms are also available.

English Idioms:

Read between the lines (Get the hidden meaning)
Give someone the cold shoulder (Ignore someone)
Get the ax (Lose the job)
To pull someone’s leg (Doing tricks by saying something untrue)
Think on your feet (Making fast decisions and adjusting quickly)
Keep in mind that the groups of words are not always used as idioms and based on the context, the meanings of the words get changed. These examples can make it clearer.

  • An arm and a leg: I like that red dress and while taking that it costs me an arm and a leg.
  • An arm and a leg: Due to a major train accident, he has lost his an arm and a leg.
  • Meera had lost and after a long time, finally she saw the light of the houses.
  • At the end of the class, Meera saw the light and realized that how foolishly, she thought the entire concept.

Phrases in English

However, Phrase is a group of words that stands together and it plays an important role in the sentences as a conceptual unit. Generally, people includes phrase in the sentences to signify the expression with an idiomatic meaning. However, a phrase is the component of the pattern of a sentence.

However, there are eight types of phrase –

  • Noun Phrase (Noun +modifiers) – It was a story as old as time.
  • Gerund Phrase (starts with a gerund) – Getting a promotion is always good.
  • Verb Phrase (verb + modifiers) -You might enjoy a dinner.
  • Appositive Phrase (restates the noun) – My sister, an important person of my life, is my best friend.
  • Infinitive Phrase (starts with an infinitive) – People love to watch comedy movies.
  • Participial Phrase (starts with a past or present participle) – I am planning to watch the movie, having seen the trailer this week.
  • Absolute Phrase (with a subject, but not with an acting verb) – Picnic basket in hand, she went out at morning.
  • Prepositional Phrase (starts with a preposition and acts as an adverb, adjective or noun) – I waited for a while.

However, the differences between idioms and phrases at a glance:
•    Idioms carry fixed meaning, whereas phrases do not have the fixed meaning.
•    Idioms are units and the meaning cannot be understood by separating the words. On the other hand, the meaning of the each word contributes to the meaning of the phrase.
•    An idiom can only be understood when one knows the meaning, whereas a phrase can be easily deduced.